Guide for Authors

Guide for Authors

Preparing Your Paper


Your paper should be compiled in the following order: title page; abstract; keywords; main text including introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion; acknowledgments; references; table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages); figures; figure captions (as a list).

Word Limits There are word limits about 6000 (15 published pages)

Style Guidelines

Please use American spelling style consistently throughout your manuscript.

Please use single quotation marks, except where ‘a quotation is “within” a quotation’. Please note that long quotations should be indented without quotation marks.

Do not start a sentence with a numeric character. No mix of tenses (present and past tense) in the same section. Space must be inserted between number and unit, also before '%' and '°C'.

In the running text, do not write common terms (except for persons' or companies' names, geographical terms, titles, names of days, months and holidays, first word of the Latin names of species) in capital letters.


The title should be clear and descriptive of the contents, but concise. A total of 100 characters (including spaces) is usually sufficient; this should only be exceeded when absolutely necessary. No abbreviations in title.


In the abstract, the main objective and novelty of the work should concisely be described, the reason or motivation why the work has been undertaken (working hypothesis), the main methods of investigation (but without experimental details), the main result(s) should be mentioned (again, no concrete data), and the conclusions and relevance for the general field of studies. No abbreviations in abstract.


In the Introduction, the state of knowledge relevant to the particular field of research addressed in the manuscript should be presented concisely in a scientific (not 'journalistic'!) style. Refrain from sentences such as "To the best of our knowledge", but state what is known. Write in a concise manner without too many 'empty' filling words such as 'however' or 'respectively'. Refrain from extensive presentation of 'textbook wisdom'. Give specific (and correct) references to published work; try to be objective in your selection of references to represent the international literature, not just citing only yours, those of your friends or colleagues, of your compatriots, or those you have just happened to have read recently. Reference to textbooks of several hundred pages without specific identification of the relevant chapter or page(s) is not acceptable. Write in an objective, neutral manner in the third person, not in the 1st person 'we' or 'I'. Abbreviations are to be introduced upon first mentioning of the fully spelled term (initial letters of each word in lower-case, not capital), followed by the abbreviation in parentheses; from then on the abbreviation must be used throughout and exclusively. Element symbols (of the periodic table) are not abbreviations and need not be explained. Do not introduce abbreviations which are used only once, so actually not needed.

Materials and Methods

Suppliers/manufacturers/vendors of all chemicals and instruments must be given (addresses in parentheses, including Country) – but only once; if the company is mentioned a second time, no need for Country. Only SI units! (No ppm, no psi, no M, no µg/dL, etc.); abbreviation for liter: 'L', for milli liter: 'mL', and so on. 'M' or 'N' are not compliant with SI-system of units: 'mol L-1'(or 'mol/L') must be used. For composed units use, e.g., mg/L or mg L-1, but consistently either or, not a mixture. (The same applies to other composed units).


Please present your finding sharply and address the related figures or tables, without any judgement or comparing with others one. Avoid useless by-sentences like "As figure x shows..." or "As shown in table y...". Do not repeat whole figure or table contents in the running text – only important exemplary data - readers are able to read tables or figures on their own. Do not present the same data twice, e.g., in a figure and a table.


The same as for the Introduction: write in a concise manner without too many 'empty' filling words, such as too many 'howevers' or 'respectivelys'. Give specific (and correct) references to published work. In the discussion, do not meander off too far from the core problem (or working hypothesis) and the novel aspect of your manuscript.


Conclusions are not meant to be another summary of what has been presented, but what can be concluded from a study.

Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has

received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.

If no conflict exists, the authors should state:

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


A Funding Source Declaration contains a declaration of any funding or research grants (and their source) received in the course of study, research or assembly of the manuscript.  For example: This study was funded by X (grant number X).


Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples:

Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3].

This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].

This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

Reference list 

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The references should be arranged and sorted as alphabetically. Pay attention to following reference styles:


Published Journal article

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009). Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105:731-738.

Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:

Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999). Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325–329 

Article by DOI 

Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000). Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med.


South J, Blass B (2001). The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Book chapter

Brown B, Aaron M (2001). The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Online document

Cartwright J (2007). Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing Physics Web. Available at: Accessed 26 June 2007


If you are unsure, please use the full journal title.

For authors using EndNote, Springer provides an output style that supports the formatting of in-text citations and reference list.


Figures should be high quality (1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour, at the correct size). Figures should be supplied in one of our preferred file formats: EPS, PS, JPEG, GIF, or Microsoft Word (DOC or DOCX).

Tables. Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Please supply editable files.

Equations. If you are submitting your manuscript as a Word document, please ensure that equations are editable.

Units. Please use SI units (non-italicized).

Publication Charges

There are no submission fees or page charges for this journal but for accepted papers authors should pay 4000000 Rial because this journal is a self-support. The published papers will appear as downloadable free of charge. 

Color figures will be reproduced in color in your online and printed article free of charge.

Copyright Options

Copyright allows you to protect your original material, and stop others from using your work without your permission. The authors should fill copyright form that indicate the manuscript was submitted solely for this journal.

Note: The editor shall further make appropriate use of the publisher’s systems for the detection of misconduct, such as plagiarism. Maximum similarity 20% will be acceptable.